Early Childhood Stages of Development – Trust Vs. Mistrust

What is attachment and how important is it to the developmental stages of early childhood? Attachment is a lasting emotional relationship that begins with infants and ties the infant to one or more persons in their lives. Attachment is important to social development and the relationships a child forms in their early years.

Erik Erikson’s theory of attachment began in his first stage of development, called psychosocial theory — the stage of attachment he labeled as Trust versus Mistrust. This stage of development not only is linked to the child’s heart, but also other processes including the engagement of the brain. A healthy attachment early on in a child’s life will provide a good foundation for intelligence later on in their development.  Positive attachment experiences give an infant a sense of well-being and security.

Research has shown that signs of infancy attachment exist from birth, though babies take longer to show their attachment then adults do. Some signs of attachment may be that a baby will recognize their mother’s smell and voice. When they are going through the attachment phase they may be less fussy, more interested, and alert. Some babies will go through a stage where they show distress with someone they don’t know. Usually, babies who don’t show stranger anxiety have had a secure and trusting attachment with multiple caregivers. Another milestone babies may experience is separation anxiety at being separated from their primary caregiver.

Some issues or challenges that may arise with attachment may be temperament. When a parent and child have a good match in temperament, it promotes a closer attachment. When there is a mismatch in temperament, it can hinder the attachment. Counseling the adult to adjust to the baby may help them in their attachment. Some examples of attachment mismatch include an active parent with a calm baby or the opposite. A serious mismatch occurs when the parent keeps pushing the baby to respond to them when the child truly is not interested or comfortable. Parents have to adjust their expectations of the baby when their temperaments to match. Caregivers can help parents understand that there is nothing wrong, and that it’s the parents’ job to understand the baby and respond accordingly rather than trying to make the baby change.

Another mismatch may be when a baby is born with a developmental issue.  Some of these issues don’t foster attachment, like when a baby has a neurological issue that makes them not want to cuddle, have pain when being touched or held, or be unable to control their facial muscles to smile. In these cases it’s important for a parent to be understanding and find other behaviors that signal attachment.

Parents who encourage independence or individualism will teach their children early self-help skills. They teach their babies to sleep alone in their cribs or to feed themselves. Their goals are self-assertion and self-expression, with the end result being self-esteem. Parents who are more focused on collectivism or interdependence will encourage their children to have stronger connections or mutual dependence. They are not as concerned with independent skills. They may hold off on teaching skills like self feeding or sleeping on their own to foster the attachment and closeness of doing it for them.

I personally am a parent who focuses more on independence, but with a loving and nurturing attitude. I love to cuddle and love on my babies, but I’m not about to coddle them. With all of my children, I had them helping with chores at an early age. I was flexible with their abilities and development when teaching these things. I am of the mindset that I’m not about to cater to everything the child wants when they want it. While I understand that is not necessarily what the other side is thinking, I am just more of that mindset.

How does this all play into your interactions with your children? I believe it is important to connect to our children’s hearts, not just when they are little, but all throughout their lives!

The Project Approach in Early Childhood Education

I have always been very interested in different ways to educate children. In fact this is one of the reasons I began homeschooling in the first place. I feel that learning should be multifaceted. Children learn in so many different ways, and being able to provide opportunities that connect with all of their learning styles and multiple intelligences, plus being focused on what they are interested in, is the best form of education. One of my children I found to be a very hands-on learner. They really seemed to flourish if they had the ability to touch, taste, smell, and do. In my early childhood education courses, we learned about The Project Approach method to learning. I found that by applying this approach, my child became excited about learning.

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The major advantages of project work is that it makes school more like real life. In real life, we don’t spend several hours at a time listening to authorities who know more than we do and who tell us exactly what to do and how to do it. We need to be able to ask questions of a person we’re learning from. We need to be able to link what the person is telling us with what we already know. And, we need to be able to bring what we already know and experiences we’ve had that are relevant to the topic to the front of our minds and say something about them.

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The Project Approach should provide developmentally appropriate curriculum that will improve the child’s understanding of the world around them. It should have a balance of activities, involve field work, work time and implementation. Children should have time to review and recall what has happened during a project to see if there are any unanswered questions left. The final piece of The Project Approach should be an opportunity to display and share what has happened during the project.

So what is The Project Approach and how is it implemented. Below I have included my presentation on the historical background and the individual phases of this method of teaching. I have also included a completed lesson plan about bees as an example of how to plan using The Project Approach.

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The Project Approach PowerPoint Presentation

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Learning About Bees Using The Project Approach

Exploring Methods for the Early Learner | Unit Studies

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Do you and your kids like hands-on projects? Do you like to lose yourself in your studies, immersing yourself and discovering the many facets of a topic? Do you like to weave together math, science, history, language arts, and more? Do you have two or more kids whom you would love to learn as much together as possible? If you answered yes to any of these questions, unit studies might be a great approach for your homeschool.

A Little Bit About Unit Studies

Unit studies are a bit different than the other methods of homeschooling I will be talking about, as they are compatible with most homeschooling theories or methods. Unit studies can be used as part of the Charlotte Mason Method, unschooling, the Moore Formula, and more. They can also be combined as a stand-alone homeschooling strategy.

Unit studies may be small, lasting only a week or two, or large, lasting for a whole quarter or even a semester. By taking a theme, let’s say the “Human Body,” and stretching it across subject areas, you have the opportunity to dive deep and create a unit of study. You may read about the human body in a book, play games about the human body, build models of the body, read books about famous doctors or people who made great discoveries in health. You may work on exercise and healthy meals, do human body science experiments, or write a fictional story about how the immune system works. You can explore vocabulary, and even use math by measuring the length your small intestine would be if you stretched it out and more.

One of the best things about unit studies is that you can include the whole family in much of the activities, slightly tweaking assignments for varying ages. It cuts back on planning and requires less time than covering different topics as separate subjects for each child.

Why Unit Studies

Young children are masters of unit studies. Have you ever watched a preschooler or early elementary child get hung up on something like firefighters? For a time, they are obsessed. They want to dress like firefighters, play with fire trucks, and be a firefighter when they grow up. Any hose-like object becomes a firehose, and no danger is too big to escape their heroism. They want to read about them, watch them, and more. This continues until they are ready to move on to the next new thing to explore — maybe horses.

By surrounding a child with opportunities to learn about something in different ways, often their curiosity is naturally piqued, and they grasp hold of the topic or theme being presented. Children love making connections.

A Day in the Life of a Unit Study Family

As with unschooling, it’s difficult to say what a day in the life of a family following a unit study plan might look like. With this type of homeschooling, the amount of structure varies, and it can be easier to see an overview of a whole unit study, rather than a particular day. For purposes of discussion, I’m packing more in this example day than would actually be feasible. These activities might all be broken up over the course of a week, but I feel it can give you a better picture of what homeschooling might look like.

The family in this example is a family of three, a four-year-old boy (Trent), six year-old girl (Trudy), and seven-year-old boy (Trevor). They are studying about pioneers and the westward expansion.

7:00 a.m. – Everyone is up, working on their chores, and helping to get breakfast rolling.

8:00 – Family worship at the breakfast table, then everyone helps to clean up and get ready for the day.

9:00 – Everyone meets at the table to start the school day with calendar time, math, and any individual lessons. Handwriting might include copying sentences about pioneers. Trevor and Trudy review some vocabulary words from the story they are reading — things like bluffs, spade, foundation, and sprain. Trent joins in mostly for calendar time, but plays with his toys while his older siblings finish up.

9:30 – Everyone gathers around to read The Little House on the Prairie. Today they are reading about building the cabin. Trent plays with his cars while he listens, Judy colors, and Trevor just sits and listens.

10:00 – It’s time to do some brainstorming and planning. Trevor and Trudy are asked to use a mind map to brainstorm how they would build their own log cabin, what materials they would use, etc. Trevor writes a paragraph and illustrates it. Trudy writes a sentence and illustrates it. Trent talks about his cabin with his mom and draws a picture.

10:30 – They all go out and measure out the size of a typical cabin built by pioneers, and do some math from the reading. For example, if Pa built the cabin three logs high all the way around, how many logs did he use in all four sides?

10:45 – The children come inside and start to build log cabins out of Lincoln Logs.

11:15 – It’s time to make lunch together. The family has been cooking recipes out of the Little House on the Prairie cookbook a couple days a week for lunch. Today they read about staples from the country store, and are working together to make hasty pudding to go with the rest of their lunch. While they cook they talk about how it would have been different to cook on the frontier vs in modern kitchens.

12:00 p.m. – Lunch

12:30 – Everyone helps clean up.

1:00 – Quiet time. Everyone picks their own books to read. Mom reads to Trent. There is a basket of books about pioneers that the kids like to pick from to look at and read during this time.

2:00 – The afternoons change. Sometimes they do art, sometimes science experiments, sometimes field trips or music lessons, etc. Today they are going to start a new project. They are going to make plans for their own prairie garden just like Ma had. They will measure and plan, and if they get everything ready on time, they will get to go to the store before supper to pick out everything they need to start their garden.

This would end the “school” day and the day would continue as normal afterward.

Materials, Resources, and Curriculums for Unit Studies

Often people who do unit studies write their own. You can also find several free unit study ideas and curriculums by searching online, and there are several boxed curriculums and resources that make it easier. Please feel free to comment below to suggest other resources and ideas.

Amanda Bennett Unit Studies – Some pre-made unit studies of all different lengths: a great and inexpensive option to dive in with unit studies based on your state requirements, your child’s interests, or any timeline you may be following.

Konos – A full unit-study based curriculum that focuses on character traits.

The Weaver Curriculum – A unit-based curriculum from Alpha Omega publishing.

Five in a Row – A literature-based unit study approach that begins with Before Five in a Row for your two- to four-year-olds, and continues with Five in a Row for children up to age eight.

Are Unit Studies Right for Me?

Unit studies can work in a lot of different situations, but just like all schooling styles, the question is, is it a fit for you and your family?

  • If you like the idea of everyone in your family learning together, unit studies are a great way to span different ages.
  • If you enjoy diving deep into a topic and exploring things beyond a textbook, unit studies provide a great opportunity.
  • If you don’t mind taking the time to do in-depth projects and field trips, you might have just found your perfect match.

How About You?

Are you thinking about unit studies, but simply aren’t sure? What are your questions? Thoughts? Reservations? Excitements? Are there other homeschooling styles you are curious about for your preschool, kindergarten, or first- or second-grader? Let’s get the conversation started in the comments below!

Find Out More

  1. “What is a Unit Study?” By Amanda Bennett: http://unitstudy.com/blog/what-is-a-unit-study/
  2. One way to plan a unit study: http://unitstudy.com/blog/what-is-a-unit-study/
  3. Another way to plan a unit study: http://www.dummies.com/education/homeschooling/designing-homeschool-unit-studies/
  4. “The Ultimate List of Unit Study Resources”: http://www.sidetrackedsarah.com/2012/08/the-ultimate-list-of-unit-study-resources/
  5. Free online unit studies: http://www.freehomeschooldeals.com/category/unit-study/
  6. More free unit studies: http://eclectic-homeschool.com/free-unit-studies/
  7. Astronaut unit study I put together: https://homeschoolingatjesusfeet.wordpress.com/category/unit-studies/astronauts/
  8. Excellent planning resources and examples from a unit study family: https://www.pepperandpine.com
  9. Unit study resources recommended by SDA Homeschool Families: http://www.sdahomeschools.org/unit-study/

Easy Quiet Book for Little Ones

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If you’ve ever had a very active toddler like I do, I’m sure you’ve wondered many times what you can do to keep them busy. When my firstborn son was little, my mother lovingly sewed him a quiet book for church. It was beautiful and he loved it! Sadly I was not gifted with the sewing gene, and my mother has since passed on. So, I pondered as to how I could make something for our newest little girl! While I may not be able to sew well or at all, I can laminate like there is no tomorrow!!

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When my older children were younger, I made tons of laminated file folder games for them. There are so many free file folder games online that you can just print out and laminate! Did I mention I LOVE laminating!! So I thought, “Why not make a laminated quiet book!” How easy is that! I dug through my extensive collection of file folder games and also searched for new free ones online. Then I printed, laminated, and cut out the game pieces.

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Next was to find a three-ring binder that was just the right size. I went with a 1″ binder and made a pretty cover for it. Then I affixed magnets onto the laminated game boards, where the pieces would go, and slid them into sheet protectors. I did this so that she wouldn’t be tempted to pull the magnets off. I cut apart business card magnets for the game boards and the pieces. After that I separated out the game pieces into individual ziplock bags and stored them in a three-ring pencil case.

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I love the flexibility of this quiet book because I can make up multiple activities, store them in my file cabinet, and change them out. The possibilities are endless! You can make one that is spiritually centered for church, and one that is early learning based, or combine them together. My three-year-old loves hers. I have even thought about making some activities that are seasonally themed also!

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Below is the link to my Pinterest board with tons of free File Folder Game Printables!!

File Folder Games – Pinterest

The laminator I have used for years is the Duck Electric Laminator. I originally purchased it at Walmart for $25, but they no longer carry this brand. There are many that are comparable in price and quality though. I love my laminator, and it was one of my best homeschool purchases!

 

Exploring Homeschooling Methods for the Early Learner | Unschooling

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Unschooling. There. I said it. What was the first thing that came to mind? It’s funny, because of all of the early homeschool methods I am going to be sharing with you, none seems to bring as strong a reaction as this one. Whether you are sold out for unschooling, or don’t want to touch it with a 10-foot pole, I encourage you to read along as you may learn a thing or two and find a thought or technique to incorporate into your own little one’s learning.

A Brief History of Unschooling
When it comes to unschooling, the name you will want to remember is John Holt. You might have heard the name before as he is also considered the father of modern homeschooling. Holt was a classroom educator who began to see that schooling was not the same as education (1). He believed that children were born to learn, and that by placing them in a classroom and telling them exactly what to learn and when, their ability to learn is impaired, not fostered. He argued that by allowing children freedom and giving them experience in real life, we would ignite a spark and true education in their minds. With the release of his first book, How Children Fail (1964), public speaking engagements, and his influence, the modern homeschool movement was born.

Why Unschooling for the Early Years
Unschooling is included in my list of options for the early years because it’s the way little kids learn naturally. They play, explore, ask questions, hypothesize, and test — with little to no direction from us. I also find that many people don’t feel comfortable with unschooling after about second or third grade due to greater pressure to stay on-track with a school system, so the early years can be a great time to incorporate unschooling concepts.

A Day in the Life of an Unschooling Family
It is very difficult to say what a day in the life of an unschooling family would be like, but I’ll give it a go. I’m creating a fictional family with a four-year-old boy (Will) and a six-year-old girl (Suzie) to paint a picture of what things could look like.

6:30 a.m. – Suzie wakes up early and comes out to the living room to play. She finds a horse drawing book her mom left on the table, knowing she likes horses, and immediately pulls out her art supplies and sets to work.

7:30 – Will wakes up and starts to help his mom make breakfast. He watches from a chair and helps mix and wash things when he can — anything in the sink with water makes him very happy.

8:30 – After breakfast, the whole family works together to do chores. Suzie has been focused on learning how to move furniture in a room before vacuuming, and Will enjoys feeding the dog. He usually makes a mess, but is getting better every time.

9:00 – The kids have time to play and explore while mom tidies around the house. Today Will helps fold the towels and rags. Both children spend a lot of time playing outside. Suzie is making a buttercup crown.

10:00 – Suzie comes to mom to get some help reading a new horse book she has started. Some of the words are too hard. She and her mom look at the book together. They decide to write down the words Suzie is struggling with and mark them with a sticky note. Suzie wants to learn the words so she can read the book all by herself. Will is building a train set and is trying to figure out how to make the track reach all the way down the hall and loop back. Suzie helps with the hardest part.

11:00 – Family reading time. Will brings a stack of books for mom to read to him. Then, they read a few chapters from a book about Seabiscuit, a famous horse. Suzie has been picking out horse books from the library.

11:45 – The kids help make their sandwiches for lunch.

12:00 noon – Lunch

12:30 p.m. – Will has a rest time while Suzie and mom work on projects that are hard to do with little brother around. Suzie loves workbooks, and is working through a math workbook with her mom. When they finish that, they start on the huge horse puzzle Suzie is trying to finish.

2:00 – Everyone goes outside to work on the garden. They pull weeds and learn how to train the plants to grow up a support.

3:00 – The kids have been reading about frogs, and are hoping to catch some. The family goes to a nearby creek. They don’t catch frogs, but they catch tons of tadpoles. They bring some tadpoles home in a glass jar and begin reading online about how to take care of them so they can watch them turn into frogs.

The day might follow with supper, more reading, family activities, etc. No two days are exactly the same, but contrary to common belief, unschooling can include a rhythm to the day, and children can be expected to learn. They are simply given freedom and the ability to follow their natural curiosities.

Materials, Resources and Curriculums for Unschooling
There is no boxed curriculum for unschooling. Materials and resources are gathered based on a child’s learning style, interests, and what’s available. The library will be a great friend. As you notice your child choosing books on a particular topic, think of other ways they might like to explore the topic. Gather activity books, look for YouTube videos, research opportunities to go on outings or field trips, and really follow their lead. Don’t be afraid to ask them what resources, materials, classes, etc., they are interested in.

Whatever resources you end up using, “strewing” is a commonly used method to get the materials to the children. You may set something up for them to find in their room, or leave a book conveniently at their favorite spot on the couch. It’s basically making a way for them to discover and expand on their curiosity. More on strewing here: http://sandradodd.com/strew/sandra.

Is Unschooling Right for Me?
Unschooling can work in a lot of different situations, but just like all schooling styles, the question is, is it a fit for you and your family?

  • If you are excited about sharing life with your little one, and find yourself resonating with some of the contributions of John Holt, unschooling might be a good fit for you.
  • If you like a bit of flexibility in your schedule and have a child who is particularly inquisitive, unschooling might help keep that spark alive.
  • If you like the idea of giving young children more freedom to play and explore, go ahead, try unschooling on for size. It just might be a great fit for you.

How About You?
Are you an unschooler of littles? Are you thinking about unschooling, but simply aren’t sure? What are your questions? Thoughts? Reservations? Excitements? Are there other homeschooling styles you are curious about for your preschooler, kindergartner, first- or second-grader? Let’s get the conversation started in the comments below!

Find Out More
1. Growing Without Schooling http://www.johnholtgws.com
2. The Natural Child Project: http://www.naturalchild.org/guest/earl_stevens.html
3. I’m Unschooled. Yes, I Can Write: http://yes-i-can-write.blogspot.com/p/new-to-this-blog-new-to-unschooling.html
4. Basic description of unschooling: http://www.homeschool.com/Approaches/unschooling.asp
5. A great video that gives examples of strewing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mhZSSxx-0RE